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Hospital Acquired Infections and Prevention

From Mediwikis

Sources

IV Cannulae

  • Can lead to septicaemia, endocarditis or osteomyelitis
  • Caused by coagulase negative staphs, S. aureus, Gram negatives
  • Higher risk, the longer the device is in situ- should be removed after 72 hours.
  • Signs- inflammation around cannula insertion site

Urinary Catheters

  • UTI or systemic infection can result
  • Caused by various gram negatives and S. aureus
  • Risks if catheter bag is not emptied, or not inserted using aseptic technique

Surgery

  • Can lead to surgical site infection (poor wound closure), abcess, or septicaemia
  • Often caused by gram negatives (gastro surgery) or S. aureus
  • Risks include higher levels of tissue damage and poor surgical skill
  • Antibiotic prophylaxis:
    • Clean(only involving skin or joint)- no antibiotics needed unless inserting prosthetic joint, in which case give flucloxacillin
    • Contaminated(Viscus containing flora is breached i.e. bowel surgery)- Metranidazole, cephalosporins
    • Infected(Removing infected tissue e.g. abcess drainage)- Targeted antibiotics required.

Others

  • Gastrointestinal-Antibiotic associated, C. difficile, norovirus
  • Skin- due to surgery, burns, stasis

Prevention