Hernias are a protrusion of all or part of viscus, though the walls of its containing cavity, into an abnormal position.
- Sac: Peritoneal lining containing the hernia (usually intestinal or omentum). Complete or incomplete.
- Neck: where hernia comes out
- Herniotomy: ligation and excision of the hernia sac
- Herniorrhaphy: repair of the hernia defect
- Reducible: Content can be returned to abdominal cavity
- Incacerated: Irreducible due to adhesions, no obstruction or strangulation
- Obstructed: bowel in hernia obstructed
- Strangulated: blood supply the content of the hernia is obstructed
- Sliding: Sac does not completely cover the hernia
- Inguinal hernia: An inguinal hernia occurs in the groin. Obesity, pregnancy, heavy lifting, and straining to pass stool can cause the intestine to push against the inguinal canal.
- Hiatal hernia (hiatus hernia): A hiatal hernia develops in a small opening in the diaphragm that allows the upper part of the stomach to move up into the chest. It causes heartburn from the stomach acid that flows back up through the opening.
- Epigastric hernia: This type of hernia occurs as a result of a weakness in the muscles of the upper-middle abdomen, above the navel. Men are about three times more likely to have an epigastric hernia than women, and the majority occur in people between 20 and 50 years of age.
- Umbilical hernia: Another natural area of weakness in the abdomen is the navel, which is made up of tissue that is thinner than that in the rest of the abdomen. These hernias can occur in babies, children and adults.
- Femoral hernia: A femoral hernia occurs in the area between the abdomen and the thigh, and appears as a bulge on the upper thigh. This type of hernia is more common in women than men.