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Gastroenteritis

From Mediwikis

Commonly known as a stomach bug, this is characterised by inflammation of the gastric tract

Symptoms

  • Fever
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Pain
  • Diarrhoea
  • Blood loss- in diarrhoea, or haematemesis

Causes

Most commonly caused by viruses:

Bacteria Viruses Protozoa
Salmonella Rotavirus Amoeba
Campylobacter SRSV Giardia
Shigella Adenovirus Criptosporidium
E. coli Astrovirus
S. aureus Calcivirus
Bacillus spp.
Vibrio cholera
C. difficile

Investigations

  • Stool microscopy
  • Stool culture
  • PCR
  • Blood Cultures
  • Endoscopic mucosal specimens
  • Serology

Management

  • Replace and monitor fluids
  • Anti-diarrhoeals should not be used, but anti-spasmodics such as buscapan may limit pain.
    • Should not be given in dysentery
  • Antibiotics aren't usually indicated, except in riskier patients- the old, the young, and the immunocompromised
  • Should be moved to side room and barrier nursed.
  • Be aware of impact on occupation- food handlers and healthcare workers need 48 hours D&V free before they can return to work